For a proper and logical understanding of Law, its classification becomes necessary. It helps in understanding the principles and logical structure of the legal order. It makes clear the inter-relation of rules and their effect on each other and it also helps in arranging the rules in a concise and systematic way.
The broad classification of law may be as follows:
International Law is a branch of law which consists of rules which regulate relations between States or Nations inter se. In other words International Law is a body of customary and conventional rules which are considered to be legally binding by civilized Nations in their intercourse with each other. International Law is mainly based on Treaties between civilized Nations. International law may be divided as follows:
It is that body of rules which governs the conduct and relations of State with other States. For example the extradition treaty between two states to bring back the fugitives.
It means those rules and principles according to which the cases having foreign elements are decided. For example if a contract is entered into in India between an Indian and a Pakistan citizen, which is to be performed in Ceylon, then the rules and regulations on which the rights and liabilities of the parties would be determined is known as ‘Private International Law’
Municipal Law is that branch of Law, which is applied within a State. It can be divided into two classes.
It regulates the organization and functioning of the State and determines the relations of the State with its subjects. It may be divided into three classes:
Constitutional Law is the basic or fundamental law of the State. It is a law which determines the nature of State and the structure of the Government. It is superior to the ordinary law of the land because ordinary law derives its authority and force from the Constitutional Law.
This law deals with the structure, powers and functions of the organs of administration; the limits of their power; the methods and procedure followed by them in exercise of their power; the methods by which their powers are controlled, including remedies available to a person against them when his/her rights are infringed by their operation.
It defines offences and prescribes punishment for them. Its aim is the prevention of and punishment for offences because in civilized societies, ‘crime’ is considered to be a wrong not against the individual but against the society.
This branch of law regulates and governs the relations of citizens with each other. It includes Personal Law e.g. Hindu Law and Muslim Law.
Apart from these kinds of law, there are some other varieties of law as follows:
Natural Law is based upon the principle of right and wrong. It embodies the principles of Natural Justice.
Conventional Law means any rule or system of rules agreed upon by persons for regulation of their conduct towards each other. For example, Indian Contract Act, 1872 deals with the rules on making agreements.
Any rule of action which is actually observed by men/women when a Custom is firmly established, is enforced by the State as law because of its general approval by the people.
The Law enforced by the State is called Civil Law. The force of State is the sanction behind this Law. Civil Law is essentially territorial in nature as it applies within the territory of the State concerned.
Substantive Law deals with rights and obligations of the individuals against the State and prescribes the offences and punishments for the commission of such offences. For example, India Penal Code, 1860 contains 511 Sections on various offences and corresponding punishments for those offences.
It deals with the practice and procedure having its objective to facilitate the administration of justice. It is a process necessary to be undertaken for enforcement of the legal rights and liabilities of the litigating parties by a Court of Law. For example, the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 enshrines the procedures to be followed to inflict punishment on the wrongdoer.