The Constitution of India which was brought into force on 26 January, 1950 announcing the birth of a new republic to the entire world. It is the Supreme Lex, it reflects upon the struggle and aspirations of the people of a country which was subjected to the oppressive rule of a colonial power for more than two centuries. The Constitution of India is also known as the father of all laws i.e., grundnorm as all the other existing laws gets effect and drive their force from the constitution itself.
It took almost three years (two years, eleven months and eighteen days to be precise) to complete the historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November, 1949 and the Hon’ble members appended their signatures on it on 24 January, 1950.
A Constitution means a document having a special legal sanctity which sets out the framework and the principal functions of the organs of the Government of a State and declares the principles governing the operation of those organs. A Constitutional law in the generally accepted terms means the rule which regulates the structure of the principal organs of the Government and their relationship to one another, and determines their principal functions. The rules, consist both of legal rules in the strict sense and of usages, commonly called conventions, which without being enacted are accepted as binding by all who are concerned in the Government.
The Constitution is the very basis on which the laws of the country gain sanctity. The Constitution is the living document, whose interpretation may change as the time and circumstances change. It is an elaborate document and contains 395 articles (divided into 22 parts) and 12 Schedules. A Constitution may be written or unwritten. A written Constitution is one, which is written down in the form of a Constitutional document whereas the British Constitution is characterized as an unwritten Constitution because it is not embodied in one comprehensive constitutional document. Constitution may also be classified into Unitary and Federal. With regard to India, the Constitution is a Quasi Federal Constitution.